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chickens and cold

I was wondering at what temperature chickens need to be indoors? Living in Ca as I do, it's pretty mild when winter comes along. Nights do hover around freezing, sometimes in the low 20s, days are always above freezing. My current batch of chickens have decided sitting on top of their hen house is the place to be, rather than inside. Is this going to be a problem when it gets colder? Must I block off that roof access so they go indoors at night? Or can I let them enjoy their roof parties and they'll be fine? These are 6 month old hens, a variety of types.
 
When we had chickens they always, during daylight hours, had access to the outside and appeared to love to go out and play in the snow.
If you provide food only inside the coop that is where they will go at night.
 

The sign of a good gardener is not a green thumb, it is brown knees.

West central Michigan along the lakeshore.

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I'm surprised. Normally, chickens just naturally enjoy being in a safe enclosed place for nighttime roosting. All the birds I ever had - from chicks I raised myself to adolescent birds from other sources automatically filed into the coop come dusk without any prompting. All I had to do was wander out after dark & lock the door against marauding nighttime predators.

Do they "have" to be inside at night? No, not if they don't want to. But depending on your setup, it might be safer for them as far as predation goes.

There are really only a couple of downsides to cold temps & chickens. One is that egg production will drop a bit. Some folks don't like this & force the birds into high production year-round using artificial heat & light. I don't agree with this & feel the birds deserve the natural rest break. It's only for a few months. The other problem with cold temps is frostbite, & that really is only a problem if you keep breeds that have large combs. I had a White Leghorn rooster that was prone to it, & during extended periods of extremely cold weather (MUCH colder than you'll ever get in your area) I used to coat his large fleshy comb with a thin film of petroleum jelly after watching him suffer through one bout of comb frostbite. Luckily, he was a very friendly rooster that I'd raised from a chick, so enjoyed being handled.
 

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"My body is a temple - unfortunately, it's a fixer-upper."

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"And no, I'm NOT being snarky."

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Zone 7a, Culpeper, Virginia

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chickens will naturally go to trees or other outdoor roosts unless they are raised or encouraged to roost indoors.

20 degrees will not come close to harming a chicken. combs can get frost bite and will fall off, tips of toes can become frost bit. this is mainly from outdoor raised fowl that are forced to use roost poles that are too small so that the toes wrap all around the post and they arent covered by feathers. where you live id doubt you will ever have any problems. here,, i get frost bit combs and toes most every winter, but its not detrimental at all to the fowl.
 
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quote:
here,, i get frost bit combs and toes most every winter, but its not detrimental at all to the fowl.


Uh. . . I hate to break it to you, but the fowl may disagree with you. Frostbite is very painful - even to chickens.
 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

"My body is a temple - unfortunately, it's a fixer-upper."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

"And no, I'm NOT being snarky."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Zone 7a, Culpeper, Virginia

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I have had chickens in well below zero for the day time temperatures. No extra heat, and they did fine.

I am pretty sure, that they will go inside if they are too cold outside.

Do remember that with temperature changes, feed requirements change. Many people feed the same amount of feed all the time. However, if it is extremely cold, the birds will need more feed during the daylight hours, as I have never seen a chicken feed at night. But then I don't have lights.

mk
 
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quote:
Originally posted by BreezyGardener:
quote:
here,, i get frost bit combs and toes most every winter, but its not detrimental at all to the fowl.


Uh. . . I hate to break it to you, but the fowl may disagree with you. Frostbite is very painful - even to chickens.


perhaps painful but it wont kill them or even slow them down. detrimental was wrong word to use. cause it does cause harm. their tolerance for pain is way past our expectations.
 
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I'm new at this mother hen business, but everything I've read says that my Rhode Islands don't need supplemental heat...turn on the heat too early, and they won't grow their winter coat. I also read to include cracked corn in the feed to help them generate body heat. I have a heat lamp, but as mild as things are here, I probably won't use it until there are many days that stay below freezing.

I've also decided to just let their natural cycles do their thing, so I'm not leaving lights on to force their winter laying. Not sure the electric bill will justify the little bit of return--I have only 4 girls.
 
MD Eastern Shore, Zone 7
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nema--good point on the corn...corn is a good source of heat. its not really the corn per say, but its the grinding motion of the gizzard that creates the internal heat. corn is obviously harder to break up than pellets, so it takes alot more energy to digest the corn, energy creates heat

another point worth mentioning, is that cracked corn is trash food. like us gorging on junk food. the germ in the corn has been broke open and nutrients immediatly are released and lost. if cracked corn isnt cracked and immediatly fed than all good things in it are lost, hense its junk. the real value to corn is fed as whole kernals the germ is intact, so nutrients are there, and being whole makes it that much hardeer to break up, hense more energy exerted, hense more heat.

feed whole corn in the evenings so that heat is produced at night.
 
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i keep the lights on a timer, so they get 4 extra hrs sometimes 5 hrs of light. their job is to produce eggs.......
 
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Thanks for all the responses. I have 6 chickens and they have a very small "coop" that one must put them inside of in preference to that roof. The roof entices them all. The entire setup is inside a fenced in/roofed in more or less predator free area. The coop is much too small to put feed and water inside, so they eat outside. All summer they've been allowed to sleep where they chose, and now all have decided the roof is the place to be. They lay their eggs there too.

At some point I will make it so the highest spot they can get to is the coop and the roof will be closed off, but I have other projects to work on and was wondering how crucial it is they are out of the night air. It is time consuming to go outside each evening and physically pick up each chicken and put her inside.

Once upon a time I had rabbits and those died a week after one freezing night. They took ill and both died, I assume from the sudden change in temps one September night. I figure chickens are much hardier.

I do give them corn/seed scratch and laying crumbles. SOmetimes hubby gives them just scratch and I have to remind him the other food source is what they need all of the time.
 
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An uncle, married to my dads eldest sister, was a farmer and they had chickens year around in a chicken coop with no heat, since they did not have electricity or gas until the mid to late 1950's. Those chickens had access to the outside year around and layed eggs year around and provided my Aunt with her egg money year around.
 

The sign of a good gardener is not a green thumb, it is brown knees.

West central Michigan along the lakeshore.

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Y'all know I can't stay away from any chicken chat!! I have friends in New Hampshire who keep lots of fowl (chickens, ducks, geese, turkeys). The chickens have a coop and go in at night - no heat, no insulation, just walls. Everyone else is outdoors, and they have never had an issue with their sub-zero temps and ridiculous amounts of snow!

My girls march back to the coop every night at dusk and put themselves to bed, or as we like to call it "chicken nite-nites" (so as not to confuse it with pony nite-nites, kitty nite-nites, or puppy nite-nites).

My flock of 14 normally produced 12-13 eggs a day. They are down to 7-9, which is still more than we can manage ourselves. So I am happy to give them their natural break and not force laying.

And perhaps this is the reason my hens are so plumpy - although they free range, I keep their feeder full at all times so they have free choice layer feed as well. I'll have to make a note of whether they start eating more now that it's colder.
 

They say happiness is a thing you can't touch, a thing you can't see;

I disagree  - Scrooge -

North Carolina - Zone 7a

 

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I have found that the chickens need to be in a draft free coop at night in the winter. My experience also says that if their combs freeze, they will quit laying. I let them out in the afternoon, but the coop door is shut at night against predators. They were raised in the coop with roosts installed, and they just go in at sundown. The wind is hard on any animals in winter. Far better to keep them out of the wind. Yes, you need additional light for chickens to lay through winter. My timer comes on at 2 A.M. and stays on until after daylight. Of course it is a different climate here at 5000 feet elevation.
 

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Gardening at 5000 ft. elevation in Northern Utah  Zone 5

Have a great gardening day!

http://donce.lofthouse.com/jam...lanting/planting.htm

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I have a large black plastic box laid on its side in the run. A great huddle box where they can get out of the wind. I placed an old window in front of it, and on sunny days it is amazing how much warmer it is in there. I agree with James, wind control out here on the prairies is crucial.

I do not keep food out 24/7, too many rodents will start to hang around. If you feed black sunflower seeds, and see a bunch of empty shells, that means either mice or pack rats ate them. Chickens eat them whole.

I also feed the scratch at late afternoon, to generate heat all night. If you have enough hens they will produce enough heat to keep everyone warm enough for very very cold temperatures. Another way to increase heat is to reduce the size of the coop, but blocking off space, say above your nests with cardboard boxes, or lining the walls with cardboard. It is a great insulator, and cheap and easy to work with.

Mrs.K
 
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NC, your posts make me smile. We have only chicken nite-nites, chihuahua nite-nites, and kitty nite-nites here.

My layout is a 5x8 completely fenced coop with perches and nesting boxes connected to a 2x4 "house" (their fav place to lay) which exits to a 50' perimeter yard on the edge of the woods. What fun to scratch and peck and roost! I close the exit to the yard at night. The "house" is covered with storm windows and it gets nice and warm on a sunny day. My only planned improvement is to make a little portico of scrap wood at the house entrance to further block wind. I do have a heat lamp installed for once the weather gets routinely very cold.

I had three eggs today...so 3 of the 4 girls must by laying! :-))) Everything-omelets for breakfast tomorrow!!!
 
MD Eastern Shore, Zone 7
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I would think chickens could survive without any heat source. I mean, what did people do before electricity was invented? I doubt they did more than shut the hens in at night and hope a fox didn't chew through the wood. I'm glad to hear chickens do just fine in super cold temps. My 4 laying hens are laying just fine, even with shorter days. They just get natural light and I still get about 18 eggs a week.

It's great to get feedback from so many of you with chicken experience.
 
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Two things. Chickens with access to the outside will be healthier than will chickens that do not and chickens that can get outside and get sone sunlight will have better tasting eggs than those that do not.
If you have not sween the difference in yolks of a factory farm egg and one from a chicken with access to the outside you need to and if you have never tasted the difference between them you need to. Keep in mind that factory farm chickens are often not even allowed as much space as an 8-1/ x 11 sheet of paper. I know the Michigan Farm Bureau is working in the Michigan legislature to pass an animal rights bill that sets the minimum allowable space per chicken to about 76 square inches.
 

The sign of a good gardener is not a green thumb, it is brown knees.

West central Michigan along the lakeshore.

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NC and Nema, if y'all don't stop, I am going to mention chickens to DH and give the poor thing a heart attack. He is just adjusting to all the projects and their budgets that he has seen since I undertook a garden in May. My egg lady has lost the overwhelming majority of her 60+ hen flock in recent months, possibly to the clever coyotes around here. If you know the Hank the Cow Dog books on tape, you're sure that they aren't as dumb in real life. I'd appreciate more comments from y'all about the predator "resistant" (won't use the "P" word) mechanisms and methods you employ.
 
If you can read this, thank a teacher.
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Things we did that made a HUGE difference from our first early coop-&-run-building attempt were:

1) Burying the chicken wire of the run enclosure about 1-1/2 feet deep, turning the edges outward about 6" to deter digging predators.

2) Instead of just using chicken wire with its large openings (I once lost a brood of pheasant chicks via having a stray dog lop their heads off when they stuck them through the 2" openings), we fastened a 4'-high border of heavy-gauge 1/2"-opening hardware cloth (aka "rabbit wire") all around the bottom perimeter of the run as well.

3) Made sure all doors & windows had heavy-duty latches for closing everything up at night - not just little open latch-hooks (remember - raccoons are like North American monkeys with their strength & dexterity). We also securely fastened hardware cloth on the inside of the window opening so we could safely leave the window open for ventilation on particularly warm nights.
 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

"My body is a temple - unfortunately, it's a fixer-upper."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

"And no, I'm NOT being snarky."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Zone 7a, Culpeper, Virginia

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Karen, predator proofing is something I have great experience at figuring out. We have lions and bobcats and bears and racoons and skunks and eagles and more. The predators come day or night, mostly at night. So, what I've learned about protecting my poultry.

One, the entire back yard has a 5' tall chain link fence that is electrified on top. The electrified is 3 strands of thin wire, about 3 inches apart, so it extends another foot above the chain link. That is what keeps most mammals out of the yard, but not the cats. When the power is out, or the brush touching it gets too thick, it doesn't work, so another barrier must be available.

The poultry are kept inside a 13'x13' totally wired in enclosure, built on 2x4s. Inside this is their small coop. The wire is 1/2" hardware cloth, and it extends down into the ground about 8", straight down. Flat bricks line the exterior perimeter on the ground, to deter digging. I once had the enclosure made of wider wire, with chicken wire near the bottom, but skunks walked right through even the 1" poultry wire! I watched the little spotted skunks go right through it one night.

It was only recently that I rebuilt the enclosure using the hardware cloth (I have no clue why this wire is called "cloth"). Expensive stuff, but it is galvanized and should last many years.

We do get bobcats hopping the fence. One shows up every year and hangs out staring at the poultry. Last winter, before I rebuilt the enclosure, a bobcat sat waiting by the duck pond then when my old lady duck floated by, he reached in and grabbed her. He couldn't pull her out, but he killed her and ate what he could. That duck and her friends had that setup for years before this happened and I never gave a thought to reaching in. The duck was very old and no longer stayed alert at night, so I suppose she had become easy prey. Husband saw the cat out back and thought it was a log. It was there for many hours before he realized it was a bobcat. He had to open the gate and chase the thing out of the back yard.

Occasionally we let the poultry into the back yard and out of their enclosure, but only if we are working out back. We have hawks and eagles that perch in the trees and I've had 2 tiny banty hens nabbed by birds. One was a merlin hawk, who was about the same size as the hen.

If you go the route of an electric fence, be sure to buy a powerful fence charger. The smaller ones don't put out enough of a shock to deter racoons. We buy the type that costs about $130 and works with a bit of brush growing on the fenceline.
 
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I do not use a heat lamp but wanted them to have some heat so I use a 60 watt light in the coop for heat and it also provides the supplemental light needed for laying. If it gets really cold and they want to, they can stand under the light for extra warmth. I have a thermostatically controlled heating platform that their water sits on in the winter. It maintains the water temperature at just above freezing. I also give them corn if we get some really bitter winter temperatures.
 

 Zone 7b  Southeastern PA

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First off - that 60-watt bulb isn't providing even the remotest sort of heat that your birds want or need. (If they're ill, they'll need a better heat source than that.) All that bulb is doing is giving your birds an unnatural light source to keep their egg production going.

If that's what you want, so be it. But it's definitely NOT anything the birds want or need. It's for you.
 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

"My body is a temple - unfortunately, it's a fixer-upper."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

"And no, I'm NOT being snarky."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Zone 7a, Culpeper, Virginia

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When we first got poultry and I wasn't sure how they'd handle cold, I used a light inside their small coop. Used a 40 watt bulb and painted it red to reduce the visible light. It raised the temperature inside the small coop by 5 or 10 degrees at night. When I've had chicks, a light made the coop very hot on sunny days and I had to put the thing on a timer to turn it off during the hottest part of the day. But at night, the chicks huddle beneath the lamp for warmth.

I've had poultry moult in late November, then got freezing nights. Worried about an almost bare hen and the frost, I used a light for heat and kept the hen alive.

Painting lights red seems to make the animals still settle down and sleep at night, and it keeps the super cold away. But, as the years went by I decided supplemental heat was maybe not needed with a well insulated coop.
 
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If you have predators, you are going to loose some chickens. I have an ongoing war, sometimes I go long periods of time without a loss, and then it seems like I loose several within weeks. Ugh!

Cold temperatures make predators try harder, and take more risks. Lost a hen in broad daylight last week. dang!

I like mine out and about, but do not do it everyday. Would lose the war to predators.

My run is totally enclosed, and pretty darn tight, however, it behooves me to walk around it periodically to detect any weak spots, a lot of rain can cause weakspots.

I have chicken wire to keep the chicken in, and that is covered with heavy wire, to keep predators OUT. Once I had a skunk get in, and I went down and reinforced everything, and had him trapped IN! Ugh, he dug out, more reinforcement, but at least I didn't get sprayed.

It is quite fun to have a few chickens, really 5 hens will provide enough eggs for a family, all year long. Many people talk of keeping them for years, but I have never had that option.

If you get chicks year in and out, it is kind of like gardening. Spring = Chicks, you get roosters. Some people rehome them, but eating them is another option, like gardening, you know how they were grown.

I like having chickens.

MrsK
 
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Well Breezy, not only was your post unnecessarily agressive but it's wrong. I have a digital thermometer inside the coop and the 60 w lightbulb raises the temperature 5 - 10 degrees. The hens will also sometimes sit under it for warmth. And yes, it's also for me because I like to collect eggs in the winter.
 

 Zone 7b  Southeastern PA

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I'm jumping in late, but my hens did well at minus 20, though I also kept a light on a timer for egg production. The neatest thing was a trick to keep their water from freezing: I put a 60-watt light under an upside-down peck basket (a big flower pot will do) and put their watering thing atop that. Worked like a charm.

Do charms actually work? Jeez, who knows.

Now breezy, get back in your corner and stop being agressive. Cool
 
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I haven't posted in quite some time. I've only recently considered having a few chickens and I remember someone here recommending a good chicken forum.

There is good information right here but a full-on chicken forum might accelerate my digestion of info.

Hey Peter... Lucky Charms are magically delicious.

Best to all...

Bill
 
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There are a number of good chicken-raising info sites & forums, but two that immediately come to mind are "Backyard Chickens" (www.backyardchickens.com) & "My Pet Chicken" (www.mypetchicken.com).
 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

"My body is a temple - unfortunately, it's a fixer-upper."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

"And no, I'm NOT being snarky."

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Zone 7a, Culpeper, Virginia

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Thanks Breezy... I'll check them out.
 
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I think I might give the girls a little heat if I moved to a place that got truly cold for an extended period, but I'm not there yet. I do not have a problem giving them extra light though to maintain the egg flow. The birds also have 24 hour access to their run every day of the year, though they do wimp out in January and February and often go weeks without setting foot outdoors. Their waterer is heated so they always have something to drink.

I haven't heated my coops here in Maine or back in the Adirondacks where it got really cold. I usually expect to lose a chicken over the extremely cold winter months but losing a weak chicken is not unusual nor a real loss. I keep Chantelclers, chickens that were bred for the northern cold in Quebec during the early part of the last century.

I keep a light on to extend the day a bit to help maintain some egg production. I've given up arguing with know-it-alls who tell me that the chickens need the short winter days to shut down egg production in order "to rest" since the same hen, living in the south or near the Equator has the same long day without electric lights and continue to follow their egg-laying program just as they do here with lights. Chickens have been doing just fine in the longer-days down south for ages without the need to "rest" over a darkened winter's day. So unless you're going to provide air fare to fly your birds south, turn on the light, harvest the eggs that they are programmed to lay and don't worry about the know-it-alls.

Wayne
 

Adirondackgardener

Mainegardener

Trying out Northeast PA.

 

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Well, Wayne... for me EVERYONE is a genuine "know-it-all" compared to me when it comes to chickens. I'm appreciating everyone's input on this. Thanks - and as one who lived for a while on the Maine coast, I know there's a significant difference in the climate of the "hills of Western Maine" and the coast. I'm having a hard time picturing where you might go that "got truly cold for an extended period" by comparison to where you are right now.

Bill
 
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A female has x number of unfertilized eggs she is born with. When she uses those up, they are gone and no more potential babies. With birds, they are born with so many and when they stop laying, they ran out. If you give a bird light so they lay through the winter, you just make it so the bird won't be laying in her end years. No harm to the egg laying apparatus.

If on the other hand you give the birds bright lights 24/7, 5 hens to a tiny cage and are in it for non-stop eggs and provide horrible living conditions, well, here in California, that is how the egg laying industry has done things for years.

I highly doubt anyone who is an avid gardener would even begin to treat their hens that way. A bit of supplemental light sounds ok to me.
 
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Pfossel-Thanks for the outstanding water thawer idea. I have only 4 hens, so big $$ outlays for the electric water heaters is counter-productive to my little operation being sustainable. I will rig up your invention this weekend! It occurs to me that I have an extra work light upstairs that will probably work fine!

Cat-I'm with you on the treatment of chickens. I am okay with letting their natural cycles work and have not committed to adding light. But I know my chickens are happy. Their chickenhood is more important than the number eggs in my fridge.

I think 2 of the 3 are laying...I've had two eggs in the last 24 hours. Caught one in the act. Don't know who the other is yet...
 
MD Eastern Shore, Zone 7
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How much light is enough light? I don't have the option of electricity at the hen house. We don't have it at the barn, and we use the barn to make money.

However, in the saddle shed we have used the solar lights, gives enough light to see where to hang the saddle, but would be pretty difficult to read by.... is that enough light to encourage laying?

Last year, mine laid all winter, but I have just found out that it is the second year, that one notices the effect of the light. My production is way down, and my new hens have not begun to lay yet, but should in a few weeks.

mk
 
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No electricity or running water to our coop, so the hens are on their own for light. We do rig a heavy duty extension cord to put a heat lamp out there when we move the young pullets to the coop for the first week or so, and I will run a cord this winter for our few weeks of really freezing weather to run a small heater for their water. In addition to being to the world's laziest gardener, I am also the laziest hen tender, so I hate to haul water every day, or twice a day!

If I was raising eggs for money, I might worry about the lights and egg production, but the hens are here for bug control first, entertainment second, and the eggs continue to be a bonus feature!
 

They say happiness is a thing you can't touch, a thing you can't see;

I disagree  - Scrooge -

North Carolina - Zone 7a

 

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For light, the idea is to extend the daylight hours to mimic the long days of mid summer. Putting your lights on a timer to provide 2-3 extra hours of light is probably plenty. If the hens stay inside all day, then inside light all day long (however long of a day you are mimicing) is what you'd try for.

With hens I've had in the past, I've noticed egg laying slows down about now, then by mid-February increases again. So just 3 months of extra light are all that's needed if you want to try for extra eggs.
 
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I like to give them about 12 hours of light per day over winter. This is not an abnormal amount of light that chickens in some parts of the world are enjoying this very day:

Sunrise/sunset times:
Here in maine: 6:30 / 4:16
Quito, equador: 5:55 / 6:03

If you use solar lights, provide some sort of timer to turn them off to provide some resting period. If I had no access to lighting in the coop, I wouldn't worry much about it but since heated water is a must, I take advantage of the power source.

Wayne
 

Adirondackgardener

Mainegardener

Trying out Northeast PA.

 

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When I kept chickens some supplimental light positioned near to the water was set up to both keep water from freezing and to add more suplimental heat than it was set up to enhance egg production.

As the hens aged egg production did fall in winter.

The girls did always tour their run every day I suspect such foraging was hardwired in. No matter how well fed they were. We were pretty suburban so predation wasn't an issue.
 
[hr]Beyond the mountains, there are more mountains.
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